He is also considered one of the preeminent architects in the history of the country. His Politics: Jefferson was a Republican, which at that time was the party of the common man. He envisioned a nation built on agriculture, not industry. The Republican party of today was created in by the joining of anti-slavery Democrats, the Free Soil Party and factions of the Whig Party. The formal name of the opposing party led by Alexander Hamilton was the Federalist Party. Jefferson was renowned for being a terrible public speaker due to a speech impediment, although he is certainly regarded as one of the most facile writers ever to hold the office of the presidency.
He alone wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence. Napoleon needed cash to conquer Europe; Jefferson wanted the land to safeguard against a future French invasion and to encourage his vision of American being a land of small independent yeoman farmers. After his two terms as president, Jefferson retired to his Virginia estate, Monticello.
He spent much of his time pursuing his dream of establishing a university. That dream was realized when he founded the University of Virginia. The friendship developed when they both worked on the committee that was responsible for the Declaration of Independence. Their friendship turned to a bitter rivalry, however, when they joined opposing political parties. They reconciled after both finished their presidencies, and they kept up a steady correspondence.
They both died on July 4, - the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson had died earlier that day. Other Accomplishments: First vice-president. Helped draft the Declaration of Independence and negotiate the peace agreement with Great Britain to end the Revolutionary War. Served as Minister to Great Britain. He felt it was beneath him to shake hands with anyone; he bowed instead. Adams was not alone in this practice, however. George Washington also preferred to bow rather than shake hands.
Born and raised in what is now Quincy, Massachusetts, Adams was a lawyer by trade. He was the longest living American president. He died at the age of 90, in Quincy. Adams was the first president to occupy the White House. The nation moved its capital from Philadelphia to Washington, D. His Politics: Adams was a Federalist, and, as such, he held a more elitist view of government than his Republican rivals. The first truly defense-minded president, Adams built the U. Navy to the point where it could compete with that of any nation. Adams was most proud of the fact that he avoided war with France at the turn of the century, in the face of strong public opinion in favor of war.
This, along with his perceived overspending on defense, led to his defeat in his re-election campaign. Closest Crony Among the Founding Fathers: Thomas Jefferson was, by turns, both his closest crony and most loathed political enemy.
They ended their lives as friends, dying on the same day, 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence see fascinating facts about Thomas Jefferson. It must be loosed. It will be loose. Superstition and despotism cannot confine it. Other Accomplishments: Franklin was one of the three Americans to sign the peace treaty with England that ended the Revolutionary War.
He also helped write the Declaration of Independence, and was the oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention. Of the Founding Fathers, Franklin was easily the most unusual character.
He then devoted his life to writing, science, and politics. Among his many inventions, Franklin created bifocal glasses. Franklin had one illegitimate son, William, who became the Governor of New Jersey. William supported the British in the Revolution. That move resulted in the permanent estrangement of father and son. He was suspicious of strong central governments and governors, be they kings or presidents. Indeed, Franklin advocated a three-person presidential committee rather than having a single president.
Franklin had a restless and ravenous mind. He eschewed normal work patterns, preferring instead to set his own pace, and ignoring appointments if he was interested enough in a conversation. He also possessed the largest private library in America. Not all of his ideas won wide acceptance. When Franklin died, Jefferson implored President Washington to hold a day of mourning.
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Washington balked, not wishing to set a precedent. Everything appears to promise that it will last. But in this world nothing is certain but death and taxes. Led the effort to convene the Constitutional Convention when the nation was verging on anarchy. Hamilton called for a meeting of all 13 states at Annapolis, Maryland in September, to discuss the economic situation in the country at that time. However, only five states sent representatives. There were not enough states for a quorum and the conference had no real authority.
Behind closed doors and with no real authority, the delegates decided to write an entirely new constitution. Hamilton was consumed by his passion for a nation built around a strong and fiscally stable central government. He was born out of wedlock in the West Indies, and moved to the colonies at the age of His father, a Scottish trader, went bankrupt when Hamilton was 15, and the boy went to work in a counting house to help support the family.
When Washington assumed the presidency, he named Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury. Ironically, before Washington was elected president, Hamilton was one of a group of politicians who felt that the U. Before he replied, the group changed its mind. His Politics: Hamilton was the one who most advocated an elitist political vision. He believed that the intellectual aristocracy should rule the nation. His opponents saw the bank as an evil tool for expanding the power of the federal government, at the expense of the states.
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When Jefferson ran for president in , he and Aaron Burr both Republicans tied. The election went to the Federalist-controlled House. Hamilton, founder of the Federalist party, convinced his colleagues to elect Jefferson over Burr. Burr then campaigned for governor of New York. Again, Hamilton swayed voters against Burr.
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Finally, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. Fatally wounded by his rival, Hamilton died one day later. They are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the Divinity itself, and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.